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Download e-book for kindle: A Century of Mathematics in America by Peter Duren

By Peter Duren

ISBN-10: 0821801309

ISBN-13: 9780821801307

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It gives answers to questions such as: how does behaviour develop during the lifetime of an individual? Ultimate explanations answer the question why certain behaviour exists and what its contribution is to the fitness of the organism. They use evolutionary theory for explaining the adaptive value (also called function) and history (phylogenesis) of the behaviour. It leads to questions like: what are the fitness consequences of behaviour and what evolutionary process explains why it was selected?

If it is a successful gene, then it must be able to invade and maintain itself as a rare variant, for there is, at first, only one copy. If the gene acts in isolation, then the material copies of the informational gene must promote their transmission in the cell, organism or society in which it is expressed, in order that the informational genes survives. The effects of the material gene are then crucial for the success of the informational gene. Now suppose that the gene is present in an organism with a germ-soma division, then the effects of the material gene in the somatic cells do not contribute directly to the transmission of the informational gene to the next generation.

I have already mentioned two reasons why they are confronted with conceptual problems. First, there are different conceptual frameworks, in particular the Cartesian and Aristotelian frameworks, which are not always clearly distinguished in discussions. Mixing these frameworks up creates conceptual problems. Second, conceptual problems arise because conceptual propositions sometimes have the misleading form of empirical propositions. This creates confusion if conceptual problems are treated as empirical problems: we sometimes mistakenly try to solve conceptual problems through empirical studies even though there is no empirical problem to solve.

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A Century of Mathematics in America by Peter Duren


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