Number Theory

Read e-book online A Friendly Introduction to Number Theory (4th Edition) PDF

By Joseph H. Silverman

ISBN-10: 0321816196

ISBN-13: 9780321816191

A pleasant creation to quantity thought, Fourth version is designed to introduce readers to the final subject matters and technique of arithmetic throughout the distinctive learn of 1 specific facet—number conception. beginning with not anything greater than easy highschool algebra, readers are steadily resulted in the purpose of actively appearing mathematical learn whereas getting a glimpse of present mathematical frontiers. The writing is suitable for the undergraduate viewers and comprises many numerical examples, that are analyzed for styles and used to make conjectures. Emphasis is at the equipment used for proving theorems instead of on particular effects.

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Additional info for A Friendly Introduction to Number Theory (4th Edition)

Example text

2 . 3 . 15 = 2 . 2 . 3 . 3 . 5. If n is larger (for example, n = 9105293) it may be more difficult to find a factorization. One method is to try dividing by primes 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, ... until we find a divisor. For n = 9105293, we find after some work that the smallest prime dividing n n is 37. We factor out the 37, 9105293 = 37 . 246089, 52 Factorization and the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic [Chap. 7] 37 , 41, 43, ... to find a prime that divides 246089. We find that 431246089, since246089 43·5723.

So the other root is the solution of that x= Then we substitute this value of y=m(x+l)=m ( 1- m2 1- m2 l+m2· --- x into the equationy=m(x+1) of the line L to find they-coordinate, Thus, for every rational number (m2+l)x+(m2- 1) = 0, which means ( 1- m2 +1) = l+m2 2m . 1+m2 m we get a solution in rational numbers 2m 1+m2'1+m2 ) to the equation x2+y2=1. [Chap. 3] 23 Pythagorean Triples and the Unit Circle (x1, Y1) in rational numbers, then the (-1, 0) will be a rational number. So by On the other hand, if we have a solution slope of the line through (x 1,y1) and taking all possible values for m, the process we have described will yield every so­ lution to x2 + y2 = 1 in rational numbers [except for (-1, 0), which corresponds to a vertical line having slope "m= oo"].

Frey's idea was refined by Jean-Pierre Serre, and Ken 1Translated from the Latin: "Cubum autem in duos cubos, aut quadrato quadratum in duos quadrato quadratos, & generaliter nullam in infinitum ultra quadratum potestatem in duos ejusdem nominis fas est dividere; cujus rei demonstrationem mirabilem sane detexi. " [Chap. 4] Sums of Higher Powers and Fermat's Last Theorem 28 Ribet subsequently proved that if the Modularity Conjecture is true, then Fermat's 2 Last Theorem is true. Precisely, Ribet proved that if every semistable elliptic curve 3 is modular then Fermat's Last Theorem is true.

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A Friendly Introduction to Number Theory (4th Edition) by Joseph H. Silverman

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