By Francis Katamba
This e-book is an advent to phonological concept put in the framework of modern mainstream generative phonology. The booklet is split into major components. the 1st introduces readers to simple options of articulatory phonetics, classical phonemics and traditional generative phonology. the second one half is dedicated to phonological conception. the character and employer of phonological representations in nonlinear generative phonology can also be explored.
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Phonology (Learning About Language)
But they are not functionally different in English. They cannot be used to distinguish word meaning. Rather, they are allophones of the same /k/ phoneme and which one is used on a given occasion depends on what the neighbouring sounds happen to be. The two 'k' sounds are in COMPLEMENTARY DISTRIBUTION. When two sounds are in complementary distribution, they are barred from occurring in identical environments: there is a rigid division of labour, as it were, so that one sound appears in certain contexts and the other in some different, clearly defined contexts.
If, on the other hand, instead of regarding phonemes as indivisible, atomic entities we think of phonemes and the phonemic symbols that represent them as merely a shorthand way of indicating bundles of distinctive phonetic Phonological symmetry 31 features, then the apparently mysterious recurrence of the same parameters in phonological symmetry can be explained. Members of a language-community have to learn to produce and perceive the psychological 'target-value' of various phonetic dimensions which their language uses to distinguish word meanings: for instance, the Arabic speaker has to learn to make two distinctions on the dimension of vowel aperture and the Spanish speaker three.
All other sounds are continuant. 18. L A T E R A L - N O N L A T E R A L [± lateral] A lateral sound is produced if the airflow through the centre of mouth is blocked and air only escapes over one or both sides of the tongue. In nonlateral sounds air flows out through the centre of the mouth. The English  is an example of a lateral L I Q U I D . ) Languages may have lateral sonorants, fricatives and affricates made at various places of articulation. 19. N A S A L - N O N N A S A L (ORAL) [± nasal] In the production of a nasal sound the velum is lowered to allow air to escape through the nasal cavity.
An Introduction to Phonology (Learning About Language) by Francis Katamba